Monday, August 27, 2012

A Short History of Bank Checks

There is no surviving documented proof of exactly when financial checks came to be part of financial transactions. Banks were a part of commercial life in ancient civilizations, but there are no records of any of the types of transactions that they carried out. However the ancient Mesopotamians, Greeks, and the Romans used banks. Some historians have dated the process of using checks at about 350 BC.

Certainly in Medieval Italy the banks played a vital part in commercial transactions. Venice and Genoa were an important trading centers. Historical research indicated that Marco Polo brought the idea of a check back to Italy from the court of Kublai Khan in 1275. Prior to that depositors had to appear in person to give instructions for a transaction. Once written instructions were acceptable it made a wider number of transactions possible.

Medieval Tuscan banks began the process of letters of credit and letters of exchange and the by fifteenth hundreds these types of transactions were common. They allowed the Italian mercantile trade to flourish because it was safer to write a check rather than carry large amounts of cash around.

By the early Sixteenth Century the practice had expanded to the Netherlands and once the banks had accepted a policy of paying money upon written instructions, this was the start of the modern account based payments by check. The process came late to England arriving in the late eighteenth century; the English had resisted the change because of the possibility of an increase in the levels of fraud, they were frightened that bank security would be threatened by people writing out cheques to accounts that they did not own. The English called their checks "cheque", and they still use the "que" at the end of the word.

The process of adapting checks occurred very quickly in America, in the 1600's the tobacco farmers in Virginia mortgaged their land and began to utilize their funds by writing checks. The oldest surviving check dates back to an English banker Lawrence Childs and it is dated 1762. The etymology of the word is unclear some view the root source to come from a double check to clarify the signatory. However it is more likely to come from the Anglo French word eschecker which means a chessboard. The Norman Kings developed a fiscal system and all the accounting was done on a piece of cloth which was divided into squares, with counters like draughts pieces.

When checks were first adapted the transactions were more secure for the customer and the recipient who could transfer funds without actually carrying cash. Unfortunately this was not the case for the bankers who still had to travel to the banks and collect the cash. As the system grew in popularity so did the number of messengers travelling between banks. Eventually clearing houses were developed where the checks were exchanged. Historically this was supposed to have started in London when two chatting messengers realized that they were each carrying a check for the other bank and they exchanged them on the spot.

In the U.S.A. the bankers have a choice they can present checks to other banks, the Federal Reserve or private clearing houses for clearance. There is no reason to transport checks from bank to bank the clearing houses scan them and read the characters at the bottom of the check, which identifies the banks they are to be drawn against this is what is known as the routing or sort code. Then there is the individual account number at the base of the check and the number of the check. Once they have been scanned and identified they are presented to the bank electronically to draw the funds.

Until a few years ago checks were very basic as they still are in Europe, they have the banks name, the account name and number and the cheque number as well as a number identifying the bank that they are drawn against. In America theme checks are now all the rage. First of all it was embossed or copperplate lettering, then individual logos, of animals or flowers. From a small change the individualization of checks snowballed.

Nowadays the checks are not issued necessarily by the bank; it is possible to purchase checks from outside approved sources. They are printed with family photographs in some cases. They are available in a huge arrangement of themes, colors, prints and borders.

In the twenty first Century there are other methods of paying bills, by credit, debit or charge card, and this has reduced the number of checks issued, the heyday for check numbers was the sixties, but none the less it is difficult to imagine that the need for checks will cease anytime soon. Who knows the credit crunch may well increase the amount of checks written as credit becomes harder to come by.

Wednesday, August 22, 2012

The Benefits Of Following Itil Best Practices And Meeting Pci Compliance Requirements

IT based systems have become the most common tool for every company around the world but are also pretty much vulnerable to a lot of frequent changes. However, ITIL best practices have been developed to help avoid this kind of misfortunes from happening.

Basically, ITIL best practices are a group of time tested and well proven practices that came from both from private and public sectors. Through time, they have well proven their worth as well as their effectiveness. To date, these practices serve as the most common guideline that is being used by IT based companies.

Once properly applied, ITIL best practices introduce various benefits and advantages. The performance of the system as well as the policy that is being applied is consistently being observed 24 hours a day. These practices also make automations on the complex operations that are being performed which in turn improve the staff's performance. Every single change and improvement is also monitored and updated through these practices.

As changes are continuously experienced among IT systems, they are prone to incidents that deliver negative effects and ITIL best practices are able to immediately detect them to avoid any unwanted results. The system's performance is also further enhanced by setting clear business priorities. Moreover, various configurations that are known to deliver negative results are securely isolated.

Aside from the above mentioned practices, the PCI compliance also needs to be given of much importance. Companies are then required to abide various PCI compliance requirements. One of the first and basic requirements is maintaining a firewall configuration in order to protect the important data of the cardholder. Furthermore, a well secured network needs to be established by restricting the system passwords from other security parameters.

Properly securing cardholder information is also best enforced through sending important encryptions on open and public encryptions. Another important requirement is continuously running and checking anti-virus software to run through all systems. PCI compliance requirements also suggest developing safe systems and applications. In this aspect, you are able to keep and maintain a vulnerability management program.

You should be able to set up a strong access control. It is also necessary to develop a unique ID for every person. Moreover, obtaining cardholder data through physical access must be restricted. Consistent check up on networks is one of the several objectives that need PCI compliance requirements. In relation to the previously mentioned objective, familiarizing with all sorts of access on network resources must be observed. Thus, all these systems and processes need to be maintained.

The last factor that makes up the whole set of the PCI compliance requirements refers to preserving a policy that strongly establishes information security. By abiding through these requirements, IT based companies can expect much better improvements on their services.

Saturday, August 18, 2012

Payday Loans: The fastest way to get emergency money

The cost of living is more today than it was last year, or even last month. It is on rise and it tends to rise faster than salaries. Many people can manage to get by with a combination of careful thrift and a little luck. But no one saves for an emergency (it's hard enough to save for retirement) so when disaster suddenly strikes, and money is needed to solve a problem quickly, payday loans are a useful financial tool.

Emergencies strike anywhere, at any time, and could be anything from a plumbing disaster, to a new wardrobe needed for a job interview, to a visit to the dentist for emergency surgery. Whatever the situation, cash may not be readily available and payday loans are one of the fastest, easiest solutions!

Payday loans are simple, short-term loans that are borrowed (sometimes instantly) and paid back on your next payday. As a financial tool, they are a useful way to bridge a financial emergency when the cash you have is not enough to cover the situation. The money goes into your account straight away, the emergency is dealt with, and the payday loan is paid back on your next pay day. Simple and convenient the emergency is behind you. And all you need to qualify for payday loans is a job. Payday loans are so convenient that some consumers prefer the simplicity of payday loans to the high fees of credit cards!

Consider this example of a typical situation where Payday loans helped out in a financial emergency:

Paul loaded the tradeshow boxes into his dented, rusty car and headed out. As a new employee, fresh out of school, Paul had offered to take on the company's tradeshow responsibilities himself so he could impress the manager. Unfortunately, Paul's car didn't share his aspirations and not far down the road, the car coughed and died. Then the diagnosis came back: A part was needed. It was small; it was in-stock; it was a quick repair; but it was expensive. Paul could have turned around and driven back to the office, but that would have been failure! Instead, Paul called a payday loans office and the money was quickly deposited into his bank account. He paid for the repair and was back on the road and at the tradeshow in time for the opening. Crisis averted and Problem solved!

Emergency situations aren't the only place where payday loans are useful. Payday loans are also useful just to cover bills until payday bridge financing as it is sometimes called by financiers. These loans are a great source of cash for those occasional extravagant nights out on the town, or even a last minute weekend away!

No one saves for emergencies. Thank goodness that there are payday loans to help cover those unexpected situations when the money in the bank just is not quite enough.

For more information about Payday Loans please visit:

Wednesday, August 8, 2012

Exploring the various types of Interest Charges

The interest charge for your personal credit cards is figured by the current amount of your balance on your credit card account and the APR or Annual Percentage Rate you are being charged for. Credit card issuers tend to use one of several methods to determine your interest and/or finance charges. The end game of theses various types is not the same; so it is best to know the differences literally. The finance charge is the dollar amount you pay to use credit. The amount depends in part on your outstanding balance and the APR.

Credit card companies use one of several methods to calculate the outstanding balance. The method can make a big difference in the finance charge you'll pay. Your outstanding balance may be calculated using the adjusted balance, previous balance (sometimes referred to as two-cycle), or the average daily balance as the reference point. Check your card agreements terms if new purchases and/or cash advances are also included or excluded as this varies from provider to provider.

The average daily balance is the most common calculation method for interest and or finance charge rates. Every morning usually in the billing period, the balance is updated with credits or refunds. With some credit card issuers, any new purchases are also added. When the end of the billing cycle comes around, daily balances are added and divided by the number of days in the billing cycle to arrive at the "average daily balance."

The adjusted balance method is the most beneficial method for cardholders. Credits received during the current billing cycle are deducted from the balance at the end of the previous billing cycle. Cash Advances you may of received made during the period for the billing usually are not reflected on the total. Basically, if you pay your bill before the end of the billing cycle you don't get stuck with finance charges.

With the previous or two-cycle balance method, the average daily balance is figured from two billing cycles rather than a single one. This tends to increase the finance charges one must usually pay. There is no grace period involved with this method and if you don't pay the amount due in full, the charges may be made retroactive back to the time of the original purchase.

It is also important to note that many credit cards also carry a minimum finance charge. Regardless if your calculated finance charge is lower, you will still be required to pay this charge. However, if no purchases or cash advances have been made during the duration of the billing cycle, generally you will not be assessed and charges. Nevertheless it is generally wiser to check the particular card in question's terms of service and fee schedule.

Tuesday, August 7, 2012

Greek Sovereign Debt Crisis Outbreak

Over the past six months, the debt crisis, ups and downs in Europe, Standard Poor's, Moody's and Fitch, the people familiar with the names frequently appear together with Greece, and each seems to bring bad news.

Greek sovereign debt crisis

December 8, 2009, Fitch took the lead in Greece's sovereign credit rating from "A-" reduced to "BBB", while the Greek public finances prospect identified as "negative." 14 days later, Moody's will be short-term sovereign credit rating by the Greek A-1 down to A-2 level. At this point, the Greek debt crisis finally broke out.

April 22, 2010, the U.S. credit rating agency Moody's announced that the Greek sovereign debt reduction credit rating. Greek bond market, prices fell the same day, financing costs (yield) soared. April 23, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) announced that the Greek Government formally apply for a loan to the organization, requiring rescue.

April 27, 2010, the international credit rating agency Standard & Poor's of Greece's long-term sovereign credit rating from BBB reduced to BB, short-term sovereign credit rating from A-2 down to B, the rating outlook as negative. In addition, Standard & Poor's also lowered the Greek National Bank, Euro Bank, Alpha Bank and Piraeus Bank's credit rating. It started since the euro since the euro-zone countries, the first long-term sovereign credit rating was rated as junk. This deepened the crisis of external debt for the escalation of the Greek panic, triggering a turbulent global market.

Other European countries quickly became the target downgrade the Big Three. The end of April, Standard & Poor's long-term sovereign credit rating of Portugal from A down to A-. Early May, Moody's Aa2 to Portugal's sovereign credit rating on negative-level watch list, down two steps and raised the possibility of warning. The end of May, Fitch announced that Spain's sovereign rating lowered to AA from AAA grade level. As a result, the debt crisis of the Greek debt crisis began to develop in Europe. Trigger a global market panic, the U.S. and global stock markets have plummeted.

Greek EU rescue plan by 750 billion

European debt crisis intensified. May 2, the euro zone and the IMF program of assistance by Greece. The main content of the program, the euro zone and the IMF jointly provide 110 billion euros to the Greek loan over three years in place; the first batch of 30 billion euros of funds in the May 19 put in place to enable the Greek government to pay when due 85 billion euros in debt.

However, this rescue package not enough to appease the market. Investors that the EU action to help Greece too late, too weak. Debt crisis has spread to Greece, Portugal, Spain and even Italy, the financial market unrest on the rise. Greek domestic protests, the credit market tightening, May 6 U.S. stock market appeared unable to explain the drastic devaluation of the Greek sense of crisis in the market may be the same as the year of Lehman Brothers, have systemic crisis.

All this prompted a few days after another EU finance ministers meeting to discuss countermeasures. Swedish finance minister said at the beginning of Berg, if you can not put a convincing solution, then the deficit by "contagion" of the country will become speculators "Wolves behavior" of the victim.

May 10, EU-27 finance ministers in Brussels after urgent consultations, introduced the "euro's stability package." Under the plan, the EU will establish a fund of up to 750 billion euros to help finance and debt crisis that emerged in the euro countries, in order to maintain stability of the euro. Its purpose is to prevent speculation in financial markets, the euro, the debt crisis of the state of the implementation of relief measures.

The history of the largest financial rescue mechanism consists of three parts, of which 440 billion euros by the euro-zone countries to provide the basis of mutual agreement between the three-year, 60 billion euros will be the EU's "Lisbon Treaty" as the basis of relevant provisions, by the European Commission raised from the financial markets, in addition to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) will provide 250 billion euros. The new aid program will, when necessary, Portugal and Spain to the high fiscal deficit, instability facing the country to provide support.

Immediately after the rescue plan, the implementation of the European Central Bank said it would "interfere" in order to ensure the market's "depth and liquidity." May 10, the European Central Bank began to purchase bonds. However, the ECB said that this intervention is sterilized intervention type, that does not increase the total currency amount of the financial system.

The ECB also restart the unlimited three-month fixed-rate loan, which is against the credit market crisis, European Central Bank an important tool. Germany, France and Italy's central bank said the 10-day purchase of government bonds has started, but did not provide specific situation. The ECB and the Fed has restored the dollar - euro exchange mechanism. May 9, President Obama to German Chancellor Angela Merkel and French President Nicolas Sarkozy expressed the need to take decisive action to restore investor confidence. This shows that the U.S. is very worried about Europe's crisis will affect U.S. economic recovery.

EU and European Central Bank's move to drive the global market rally. May 10 euro jumped to 1.3 U.S. dollars in one fell swoop. Greece 10-year borrowing costs fell by nearly half, also rose in New York stock market opened, the Dow surged 400 points or more, while the three major indexes rose more than 4%. Asian markets generally rose. Japan's Nikkei index closed up 1.6%, Australian stocks closed up 2.7%, mainland China Shanghai Composite rose 0.4%, while South Korea and China Taiwan stocks rose 1.8% and 1.3%. Hong Kong Hang Seng Index rose 2.5%.

Wednesday, August 1, 2012

Makeup Artist Resume Sample

Are you an aspiring makeup artist? If yes, then you need to learn how to draft a good makeup artist resume. Use the sample resume for make up artist given in this article as a guideline for your needs.

While writing a resume, whichever job you are applying for, the things that you need to pay attention to, remain more or less the same. Your experience, educational qualifications, and skill set are some of the most important things that you will need to focus on. Whether you are drafting a makeup artist resume or a resume for the job of a tech analyst, always focus on the three categories mentioned earlier. Keep the tone of the resume formal and professional. Try to be brief. A long, elaborate resume can often be discarded only because of the details that an employer will need to go through.

How to Write a Makeup Artist Resume

While drafting a resume, as a makeup artist, the first thing that you need to concentrate on is what your objective is. This determines the purpose of your resume, which is very important. When a professional from the human resources department shuffles through the many resumes he receives, a well written and precise objective can grab his attention. Next, it is important to pay attention to the qualifications you are putting on your resume. Always list out your qualifications and concentrate on the skills to put on a resume. A well drafted skill set will tell your prospective employer exactly how you would suit the job at hand. As a makeup artist your work experience will determine not only the kind of jobs that come your way but also the makeup artist salary range that you fit into. An apprentice will definitely not get the same kind of work that an established makeup artist will. Therefore, it is important that in your makeup artist resume you focus your attention on your work experience. List out every duty that you were responsible for at your workplace. This helps focus on your different capabilities. If you have done a degree or diploma in your field of interest, then it is important to make sure that your educational qualifications are highlighted in your makeup artist resume.

A resume for makeup artist should also have your contact information. If you deem it necessary you can offer to include reference letters with the resume. If you do so, then provide your prospective employers with contact information for your references as well. When you are sending out the resume, you may decide to send out a cover letter as an accompaniment to the resume.

Makeup Artist Resume Sample

Now you know the resume writing tips that will help you while drafting a makeup artist resume. While some people prefer using a makeup artist resume template as a guideline, there are others who find it easier to refer to a makeup artist resume sample. In this article, we give you a resume sample for makeup artist, for your ease.
Jennifer Kingsley
834, Elm Street
Clover County, USA - 3842
Home: (978) 696-0897
Cell: (860) 089-9786


To gain employment as a senior makeup artist.

Talented makeup artist with an experience of more than five years in the industry.
Good communication skills which make interpretation of job at hand, ideating with clients, and providing them with accurate representations of what they want easy.
Good knowledge of advanced artistry in the makeup field and ability to stay ahead of the curve where latest trends are concerned.
An ability to multitask and manage several projects at once in an industry where time is of utmost concern.
An in depth understanding of lighting, camera angles, and impact of special effects on makeup.

Studio 18, Minneapolis
2005 - Present

Makeup Artist
Clarification of all requirements that clients have after in depth discussion.
Research of the look required according to the demands of the script.
Ascertaining the budget for meeting the visual requirements of the script.
Discussions with the production team, cast, and crew to finalize the looks for the project at hand.
Assigning members of the makeup team to different cast members and determining, in coordination with the design team, that no look is incongruous.
Maintaining a log book and portfolio of the various looks and styles for different projects.
Development of prosthetics and manipulation of hairpieces and wigs.
Knowledge of the best suppliers for the various products for makeup and hairstyling needed for various projects.
Educational Qualification

B.A., University of Minneapolis, 2004
Diploma in Cosmetology, Galaxy Cosmetology School, 2005

So now you know how a professional makeup artist resume should be drafted. There is no set method that can help you learn how to write a good resume. Just follow all the tips given in this article and focus on the qualifications that make you a capable candidate for the position at hand, and you should have no problem drafting a good resume for yourself.